Milestones in Kozmigroov History

Date Event
early 1950's Oxide tape recorders become commercially available
early 50's Experimental "tape composers" use tape recording/delay/loop techniques to create new sounds
early 50's Commercial release of Wurlitzer Electric Piano
1955 Hammond B3 Organ produced; the first "portable" organ.
1955 Wild Bill Davis and Milt Buckner are early pioneers on the Hammond B3 Organ.
1956/57 Sun Ra uses Electric Piano on _Sounds Of Joy_ and possibly "Angels and Demons at Play"
late 50's Jimmy Smith makes the Hammond B3 Organ a household name.
1958/59 Miles Davis releases _Kind Of Blue_, an early modal jazz album.
1961 Sun Ra's _Cosmic Tones For Mental Therapy_ uses tape delay/loop/echo techniques and early proto-synthesizers (clavionline)
1963 Mellotron analogue tape sampler invented
1964 Moog synthesizer invented
1965 First commercial release of Fender Rhodes Electric Piano
1965 James Brown's "Papa's Got a Brand New Bag" gets the groove on and helps define funk music.
1966 Joe Zawinul and Cannonball Adderley release _Mercy Mercy Mercy_ with use of a Fender Rhodes Electric Piano
1966 Charles Lloyd Quartet billed as "first psychedelic jazz group" and show early use of electric guitar in jazz.
1966/67 Saxophonist Joe Harriott and violinist John Mayer release _Indo Jazz Fusions_, an early example of world-fusion.
1967 The Beatles use Mellotron and various post-production studio techniques and release _Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band_ which is a major influence on Miles Davis and other pioneering jazz artists and producers.
late 60's Jazz record sales see serious errosion as more and more people turn to Rock.
1967/68 Miles Davis first commercial use of Fender Rhodes on "Stuff" from _Miles In The Sky_
1968 Miles Davis uses Fender Rhodes on every song on _Filles de Kilimanjaro_
1968/69 Miles Davis & producer Teo Macero release _In A Silent Way_, which shows early uses of post-production techniques in jazz and is Davis' first true kozmigroov album.
1968/69 David Axelrod releases _Song of Innocence_ and _Songs of Experience_ sounding like nothing else from its era, with melodramatic strings tied to heavy echoed breakbeats.
1969 Tony Williams leaves Miles Davis and releases _Emergency_ which completely shatters the boundaries between jazz and rock.
1969 Pharaoh Sanders releases _Karma_ and "The Creator Has A Master Plan" which becomes Sanders defining moment/sound.
1969 "Yekermo Sew", featuring a Fender Rhodes, is released in Ethiopia and highlights the mixing of Eastern and Western instrumentation in jazz.
1969/70 Miles Davis releases _Bitches Brew_, officially ushering in the era of electric-jazz, fusion, kozmigroov, etc... Though dismissed by jazz "purists" at the time, _Bitches Brew_ finds a younger non-jazz audience and becomes Davis' first gold selling album.
1970 The MiniMoog is created
1970 Fela Kuti releases _Fela's London Scene_ which uses electric piano and marks the beginning Fela's finest (and most kozmigroov) period of recording.
1970 Donald Byrd absorbs the innovations of Bitches Brew and comes up with one of the most consistent fusion sets of any flavor: _Electric Byrd_
1970 Alice Coltrane releases _Journey In Satchidananda_, a modal kozmigroov masterpiece!
1970/71 Herbie Hancock releases _Mwandishi_ where he completely embraces electronics and his recordings become spacier and more complex rhythmically and structurally.
1971 George Clinton and Funkadelic release _Maggot Brain_, a jazz influenced soul-funk album.
1971 Joe Zawinul & Wayne Shorter leave Miles Davis and form Weather Report. They release their self-titled debut album which continues the jazz-rock/fusion exploration of _In A Silent Way_.
1971/72 Roy Ayres releases _He's Coming_ and _Ubiquity_ which showcase the influence of soul and funk on jazz, thus creating jazz-funk.
1972 Sun Ra releases _Space Is The Place_ which becomes arguably Ra's most famous tune.
1972 Miles Davis releases _On The Corner_, with distorted guitars, double-timing drums and deep funky bass. Many view this as Davis' most controversial album.
1972/73 Manu Dibango and _Soul Makossa_ signal the rise and influence of disco on jazz.
1973 Herbie Hancock releases _Head Hunters_. Tired of low record sales, Herbie dives into more commercially accessible funk material. _Head Hunters_ becomes the largest selling jazz album ever, and draws many key players into less exploratory and more lucrative regions.
1975 Miles Davis retires for the next 5 years.
1976 Many jazz musicians follow the growing disco trend and incorporate disco sounds/beats into their music, which is the beginning of the end of "classic" kozmigroov.
1976 Jazz-Rock/Fusion flames out due to commercial over-exposure and creative stagnation. Another indication of the end of "classic" kozmigroov.
1979 First digital sampler, FairLight CMI (Computer Musical Instrument), invented.
1979 Disco Sucks Demolition Night at Comiskey Park in Chicago, Illinois
1980 "Disco" becomes a dirty word and the music morphs into other genres, helping pave the way for hip-hop, house and techno.
1980's Many jazz musicians return to their "straight" jazz roots
1983 MIDI (Musical Instrumental Digital Interface) invented.
Emulator digital sampling keyboard released.
1982/83 Bill Laswell releases first solo album _Basslines_ which uses an array of sythesizers and electrified basses with various touches of jazz.
1983 Herbie Hancock & Bill Laswell team up to create the grammy-winning "Rockit" and introduce the mainstream audience to scratching and electro
1988/89 Acid-Jazz music is coined by DJ Gilles Peterson who helps spearhead England's jazz dance revival scene.
mid 1990's Acid-Jazz and Hip-Hop artists rediscover and sample early jazz-funk artists.
1992 "Bug In The Bassbin" by Carl Craig hints at early modern kozmigroov
1996 "Bug In The Bassbin" (jazz mix) is a modern kozmigroov masterpiece!
1996 Jazz Satellites compilation released, which brings together classic and modern kozmigroov artists in one place, connecting the dots between them. The compilation helps spark the birth of the Kozmigroov Mailing List.
late 1990's "Electronic/Dance" artists start including sampled jazz and live jazz instrumentation into their music creating Nu-Jazz and Modern Kozmigroov.